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Vitali Isaev
Vitali Isaev

Doctorate [BEST]


A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach"), doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher"), or doctoral degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities and some other educational institutions, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi ("licence to teach"). In most countries, a research degree qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field or work in a specific profession. There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.




doctorate



In the United States and some other countries, there are also some types of technical or professional degrees that include "doctor" in their name and are classified as a doctorate in some of those countries. Professional doctorates historically came about to meet the needs of practitioners in a variety of disciplines.


The term doctor derives from Latin, meaning "teacher" or "instructor". The doctorate (Latin: doctoratus) appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach Latin (licentia docendi) at a university.[1] Its roots can be traced to the early church in which the term doctor referred to the Apostles, church fathers, and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible.[1]


George Makdisi theorizes that the ijazah issued in early Islamic madrasahs was the origin of the doctorate later issued in medieval European universities.[4][5] Alfred Guillaume and Syed Farid al-Attas agree that there is a resemblance between the ijazah and the licentia docendi.[6] However, Toby Huff and others reject Makdisi's theory.[7][8][9][10] Devin J. Stewart notes a difference in the granting authority (individual professor for the ijzazah and a corporate entity in the case of the university doctorate).[11]


The doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany in the 17th century (likely c. 1652).[12] The term "philosophy" does not refer solely to the field or academic discipline of philosophy. Still, it is used in a broader sense under its original Greek meaning: "love of wisdom". In most of Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics, and natural philosophy/natural sciences)[13] were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the "faculty of philosophy". The Doctorate of Philosophy adheres to this historic convention, even though most degrees are not for the study of philosophy. Chris Park explains that it was not until formal education and degree programs were standardized in the early 19th century that the Doctorate of Philosophy was reintroduced in Germany as a research degree,[14] abbreviated as Dr. phil. (similar to Ph.D. in Anglo-American countries). Germany, however, differentiated then in more detail between doctorates in philosophy and doctorates in the natural sciences, abbreviated as Dr. rer. nat. and also doctorates in the social/political sciences, abbreviated as Dr. rer. pol., similar to the other traditional doctorates in medicine (Dr. med.) and law (Dr. jur.).


University doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Masters of Arts" was seven years, matching the apprenticeship term for other occupations. Originally the terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master's degree.


University degrees, including doctorates, were originally restricted to men. The first women to be granted doctorates were Juliana Morell in 1608 at Lyons[15] or maybe Avignon (she "defended theses" in 1606 or 1607, although claims that she received a doctorate in canon law in 1608 have been discredited),[citation needed] Elena Cornaro Piscopia in 1678 at the University of Padua, Laura Bassi in 1732 at Bologna University, Dorothea Erxleben in 1754 at Halle University and María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda in 1785 at Complutense University, Madrid.[16]


The use and meaning of the doctorate have changed over time and are subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century, few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders. After that time, the German practice of requiring lecturers to have completed a research doctorate spread. Universities' shift to research-oriented education (based upon the scientific method, inquiry, and observation) increased the doctorate's importance. Today, a research doctorate (PhD) or its equivalent (as defined in the US by the NSF) is generally a prerequisite for an academic career. However, many recipients do not work in academia.


Professional doctorates developed in the United States from the 19th century onward. The first professional doctorate offered in the United States was the M.D. at Kings College (now Columbia University) after the medical school's founding in 1767.[17] However, this was not a professional doctorate in the modern American sense. It was awarded for further study after the qualifying Bachelor of Medicine (M.B.) rather than a qualifying degree.[18] The MD became the standard first degree in medicine in the US during the 19th century, but as a three-year undergraduate degree. It did not become established as a graduate degree until 1930. As the standard qualifying degree in medicine, the MD gave that profession the ability (through the American Medical Association, established in 1847 for this purpose) to set and raise standards for entry into professional practice.[19][20]


In the shape of the German-style PhD, the modern research degree was first awarded in the US in 1861, at Yale University.[21] This differed from the MD in that the latter was a vocational "professional degree" that trained students to apply or practice knowledge rather than generate it, similar to other students in vocational schools or institutes. In the UK, research doctorates initially took higher doctorates in Science and Letters, first introduced at Durham University in 1882.[22] The PhD spread to the UK from the US via Canada and was instituted at all British universities from 1917. The first (titled a DPhil) was awarded at the University of Oxford.[23][24]


Following the MD, the next professional doctorate in the US, the Juris Doctor (JD), was established by the University of Chicago in 1902. However, it took a long time to be accepted, not replacing the Bachelor of Laws (LLB) until the 1960s, by which time the LLB was generally taken as a graduate degree. Notably, the JD and LLB curriculum were identical, with the degree being renamed as a doctorate, and it (like the MD) was not equivalent to the PhD, raising criticism that it was "not a 'true Doctorate'".[25][26] When professional doctorates were established in the UK in the late 1980s and early 1990s, they did not follow the US model. Still, they were set up as research degrees at the same level as PhDs but with some taught components and a professional focus for research work.[27]


Now usually called higher doctorates in the United Kingdom, the older-style doctorates take much longer to complete since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are less common than the PhD in some countries and are often awarded honoris causa. The habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU. It involves either a long new thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications. The habilitation (highest available degree) demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing, and, more recently, the ability to generate supportive funding. The habilitation follows the research doctorate, and in Germany, it can be a requirement for appointment as a Privatdozent or professor.


Since the Middle Ages, the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities have proliferated throughout the world. Practice varies from one country to another. While a doctorate usually entitles a person to be addressed as "doctor", the use of the title varies widely depending on the type and the associated occupation.


Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of publishable academic research, at least in principle, in a peer-reviewed academic journal. The best-known research degree title in the English-speaking world, is Doctor of Philosophy (abbreviated Ph.D.,[28] PhD[29] or, at some British universities, DPhil[30][31][32]) awarded in many countries throughout the world. In the U.S., for instance, although the most typical research doctorate is the PhD, accounting for about 98% of the research doctorates awarded, there are more than 15 other names for research doctorates.[28][33] Other research-oriented doctorates (some having a professional practice focus) include the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.[28] or EdD[29]), the Doctor of Science (D.Sc. or Sc.D.[28]),Doctor of Arts (D.A.[28]), Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D. or S.J.D.[28]), Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.[28]), Doctor of Professional Studies/Professional Doctorate (ProfDoc or DProf),[29] Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H.[28]), Doctor of Social Science (D.S.Sc. or DSocSci[29]), Doctor of Management (D.M. or D.Mgt.),[34] Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.[28] or DBA[35]), the UK Doctor of Management (DMan),[36] various doctorates in engineering, such as the US Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng., D.E.Sc. or D.E.S.,[28] also awarded in Japan and South Korea), the UK Engineering Doctorate (EngD),[37] the German engineering doctorate Doktoringenieur (Dr.-Ing.) the German natural science doctorate Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr. rer. nat.) and the economics and social science doctorate Doctor rerum politicarum (Dr. rer. pol.). The UK Doctor of Medicine (MD or MD (Res)) and Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) are research doctorates.[29] The Doctor of Theology (Th.D.,[28] D.Th. or ThD[29]), Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT)[29] and the Doctor of Sacred Theology (S.T.D.,[28] or D.S.Th.) are research doctorates in theology.[38] 041b061a72


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